Riyadh History, Saudi Arabia
Riyadh is the capital as well as the largest city of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is situated on a plateau at the center of the Arabian Peninsula, it is currently home to more that four million people of unique race ranging from Arabs and non-Arabs. It has been the witness to the rise and fall of different empires that has conquered the famed peninsula. Currently, it is divided into fifteen municipal districts managed by Riyadh Municipality headed by the mayor of Riyadh, Abdul Aziz ibn Ayyaf Al Migrin, and the Riyadh Development Authority, chaired by Governor of Riyadh Province, Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz.
Although still a very conservative city, it is home to some of the most magnificent structures for the pleasure and leisure of men and women alike. History also has a great influence in the naming of the city, it is derived from the Arabic word rawdha which means garden owing to the various orchards of dates and palm trees that covered the fertile area in ancient times.
History of the city dates back even before the time of Islamic era. It was then called the Hajr while being under the rule of the tribe of Banu Hanifa. By then it was already the capital of the Al Yamamah that is home to the seat of governance of most parts of east and central Arabia. This happened during the time of the Ummayad and Abbasid empires. However, when the Al Yamamah was separated from the empire it fell into the rule of Ukhaydhirites in 866. A few years later, the whole Hajr settlement was divided into different settlements and estates. Riyadh took the form of the city that it is now in 1737 when Deham ibn Dawwas took over the control of the city. He built a wall enclosing the whole city making it a single entity. In 1774, upon various measures to recapture the city by the Saudis, ibn Dawwas fled the city and thus appeared the declaration of the First Saudi State. However, with the raids of the Ottoman Empire in 1818, this led to the city’s fall to the empire. In 1823, Turki ibn Abdallah, founded of the Second Saudi State and made it an integral part of the empire. Finally, the Al Saud clan recaptured the city with the leadership of King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud on the way to establish the modern Saudi in 1932 with Riyadh as its capital. Today, Riyadh has become somewhat a melting pot of races. It houses the locals in harmony with the foreign workers. At the same time, the city has managed to establish its cultural heritage with the numerous buildings and establishments that date back to the time of the Empires.
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