Olomouc History, Czech Republic
Olomouc is a city found at the eastern side of the Czech Republic specifically in the region of Moravia. This metropolis was once a part of Rome but as early as the 7th century, had become a part of the Moravian Empire. Learn about Olomouc History through the following facts.
Olomouc History - Early History
During the reign of the Roman Empire, Olomouc is assumed to have occupied a Roman fort. During that time the city is known as Mons Julii. Although no documents can prove this, ruins that confirm the existence of a Roman military camp which dates back to the Macroman Wars were excavated by archaeologists.
Between the 9th and the early 10th century, Olomouc became a significant center of the Great Moravian Empire. Shortly after, the city became the capital of Moravia. It also was the seat of the government of Premyslid.
Olomouc History – The Middle Ages
The formal foundation of Olomouc History was established in the mid-1200s and had since turned out to be the chief significant trade and power center in Moravia. In 1454, the Jewish population was driven out of the city of Olomouc.
The Golden Age of Olomouc started in the mid 15th century. The city became a host to a number of royal meetings. The two kings of Bohemia, Vladislaus II and Matthias Corvinus had a meeting in Olomouc in 1479 and signed the agreement “Peace of Olomouc” (approved for the split of the country).
Olomouc History – 17th to 19th Century
In 1640, at some point in the Thirty Years’ War, Olomouc was invaded and occupied by the Swedes. These foreigners stayed in the city for 8 years. In 1758, Frederick the Great tried in vain to besiege the city. The unsuccessful invasion was mainly due to the fortification by the Maria Theresa.
Olomouc City was the place where Emperor Ferdinand was abdicated in 1848. Two years after, a very significant conference between the German and Austrian statesmen took place in the city. This was known as the Punctuation of Olmutz.
Olomouc History – 20th Century
During the 1st and 2nd World Wars, serious hostilities between the Czech and German-speaking residents in Olomouc arose. On the 10th of November 1938, the synagogue located in the city was destroyed. Following this, 800 Jewish men were arrested and driven off to Dachau concentration camp. The remaining Jews were then sent off to other German concentration camps.
The German residents of Olomouc sided with the Nazi during the war and even named the city’s main square after Adolf Hitler. However, when Olomouc was liberated after the war, the main square’s name was again changed. Majority of the German residents were expelled from the city.
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